Albâtre Der Alabaster
A marble-like stone that is usually white, opaque, or translucent variety of gypsum. It is used for statues, vases, etc.
Une alcove Die Nische
An indent or bay in a wall or within a room.
Un hospice de pauvres Das Armenhaus
House where poor people could live for free.
L’antiquité antiken Überreste
Something remaining from ancient times, such as relics, monuments or traditions and customs.
L’arbitrage Die Streitschlichtung, Die Schlichtung
The settling of a dispute.
La galerie en arcade Die Galerie
Elevated gallery from which the head chef could survey the kitchen.
Arche Der Bogen
A curved structure in architecture spanning an opening which may or may not support weight.
Une pierre de taille Der Steinquader, Der Quaderstein
A building stone that has been squared and finished and used for masonry.
L’île d’Avalon Avalon
An island featuring in the legends of King Arthur. Many believe Glastonbury to be the island.
L’avarice Die Habgier
Excessive desire for wealth or gain; greed.
Battle of Bosworth
Bataille de Bosworth (die) Schlacht von Bosworth
Last significant battle of the Wars of the Roses, fought on 22 August 1485.
Battle of Hastings
Bataille d'Hastings (die) Schlacht von Hastings
Battle fought in 1066 near Hastings between French King William and English King Harold.
Clocheton Das Türmchen, Der Dachreiter
A turret or framework upon a roof, built to hang bells.
L’ordre Bénédictin Benediktinerorden, (der) Orden der Benediktiner
A way of monastic life that follows the Rule of St. Benedict dating from c.529 AD.
A court and castle featuring in the legends of King Arthur. Its exact location is unknown.
Le chaudron Der Kessel
Large cooking pot with a handle used over a fire.
Le Cellérier Der Kellermeister
Had overall responsibility for food and drink.
La cotte de mailles Das Kettenhemd
Armour made of interlinking metal chains.
Un calice Der Kelch
A cup used to hold wine during the Eucharist/Holy Communion.
Un puits sacré Die Chalice Well, Die Kelchquelle
Sacred well at the foot of Glastonbury Tor which has spiritual and healing properties.
Une chasuble Das Messgewand
Sleeveless outer vestment worn by the priest at mass.
Un chevron Chevron
A pattern in an upside-down V shape.
Les moulures en chevron Chevron-Form,Chevron-Muster
A zigzag ornamental moulding found in Norman architecture, usually on the outside of archways.
Le chœur Das Chorgestühl
Where the monks of an abbey would have sat in the church during worship. Nowadays it is where the choir sits and sings from during services.
Une Christogramme Das Chorgestühl
A monogram or combination of letters which is an abbreviation for Jesus Christ and is traditionally used as a Christian symbol.
Le Mystère de la Passion Die Passion Christi
The story of Christ’s arrest, trial and suffering and ends with his crucifixion.
La cloître Der Klostergang
A covered walk usually with a garden or a yard surrounded by church buildings. Cloisters are usually found in monasteries or large churches.
L’ordre de Cluny/ Les Clunisiens Der Cluniazenserorden, Orden der Cluniazenser
A medieval organisation of the Benedictines, which was centred at Cluny Abbey in France. It was founded in 910, Cluny was the head of far-reaching religious reform in the Middle Ages. It was second only to the papacy during its height (c.950–c.1130) as the chief religious force in Europe. The order weakened in the 12th century.
Un couvent Das Nonnenkloster
A Christian community of nuns living together under monastic vows.
Chape Das Pluviale,Der Chormantel
A long, loose cloak worn by a priest or bishop on ceremonial occasions.
Flambeau Die Feuerschale
A metal cup or basket that is suspended and has a flammable liquid inside and would be lit to provide lighting.
La crosse (d'évêque) Der Bischofsstab
A staff like a shepherd’s crook carried by bishops and abbots to reflect their office.
Fleuron Croix Das Zierkreuz
The cross at the end of a roof or a staff.
Un creuset Der Schmelztiegel
A melting pot for glass or other materials.
Burette Das Messkännchen
A vessel to hold wine or water for the Eucharist.
Les croisades Die Kreuzritter, Die Kreuzfahrer
Medieval campaigns to the Holy Land in the Middle East around Jerusalem with the aim of gaining back this land from the Muslims. The crusades took place in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries.
La crypte Die Krypta
An underground chamber usually beneath a church or chapel for holy relics and burials.
Culte Der Kult
Religious devotion typically shown through ritual behaviour and creation of religious monuments, images or objects.
Defender of the Faith
Défenseur de la foi Der Verteidiger des Glaubens
From the Latin, Fidei Defensor. This title was given to Henry VIII in 1521 by Pope Leo X until Henry broke away from the Church. The title was restored to the King by Parliament in 1544 and has been held by each British monarch since then.
Piller plündern, rauben
To plunder; to remove or forcibly take, valuable possessions.
Indigent/ dans le dénuement verarmt, Not leidend
To be extremely poor.
La dissolution Die Auflösung
The breaking down or disintegration of an organisation, such as Glastonbury Abbey.
Le Domesday Book Das Buch des Jüngsten Tages, Das Doomsday Book
Completed in 1086, the book was commissioned under William the Conqueror and includes all land-holdings, the wealth of each landholder and livestock in England and parts of Wales.
Une effigie Das Abbild
Commonly found on tombs, effigies are usually life size likenesses of a person made of stone, or often of wood in the Medieval period.
Inféoder Das Lehensgut
To give someone freehold property or land in return for their pledged service, as happened under the feudal system.
L’excommunication Die Exkommunikation
Exclusion from the church.
Un fagot Das Holzbündel, Das Reisigbündel
Bundles of kindling for a fire.
Une fresque Der Fresko
A painting on wet plaster.
Fruggan Der Aschekratzer, Die Ofengabel
A long handled instrument with metal chains at the end that removes ash from a medieval oven.
The iron bar in the chimney from which the pot-hooks hang.
Ceinture/la gaine Der Gürtel
A belt or cord that is tied around the waist.
Gothique (die) Gotik
Style of architecture found across Europe. It originated in France in the 12th Century, evolving from Romanesque architecture and lasted into the 16th Century.
Granger Der Bauer
Supplier of cereals and beans.
Henry of Blois
Henri de Blois Heinrich von Blois
Abbot of Glastonbury from 1126 until 1171.
Un ermite Der Eremit
A person who lives a solitary life away from society.
Hides of Land
Lot de terre Die Hide
A unit of land measurement which usually indicated the amount of land needed to support a household.
Le maitre-autel Der Hauptaltar,Der Hochaltar
The main altar within a church.
Le (Saint) Graal Der Heilige Gral
A cup, plate or stone that is said to have the powers of eternal youth, happiness and food in abundance; or alternatively the cup used at the Last Supper and used by Joseph of Arimathea to carry the blood of Christ. It is especially prominent in Arthurian legend.
Une aubépine sainte Der Heilige Dornbusch
Tree that is said to have grown from Joseph of Arimathea’s staff when he placed it in the ground at Wearyall Hill.
La marelle Himmel und Hölle, (Hickelkasten)
A game marked out on the ground in numbered squares which the players hop over
Une auberge Die Herberge
An inn or a pub with accommodation.
Hung, drawn and quartered
Être pendu, traîné et écartelé Hängen, Ausweiden und Vierteilen
A form of punishment from 1351 if convicted of high treason. A person would be hung by the neck until almost dead, have their insides cut out, be beheaded and then be cut into four parts.
To pierce with a pointed/sharpened object.
Indulgences Der Ablass
A form of absolving sin and reducing your time in purgatory. Indulgences can either be bought or can be given by a monk.
Un gril de fer Der Bratrost
Used to cook fish on.
Jesus Maria Stone
Un stèle dédié à Jésus
Stone on the outside of the Lady Chapel that was one of the significant stopping points for the pilgrims visiting Glastonbury Abbey.
Guimbarde Die Maultrommel
A small lyre-shaped musical instrument which creates a single note by being held between the teeth and being struck with a finger. The sound changes if the player alters the shape of his mouth. The monks would use it to get their pitch before signing/chanting.
Joseph of Arimathea
Saint Joseph d’Arimathie Joseph von Aramathäa
Jesus’ uncle (or great-uncle). It is said that he brought Jesus, as a teenager, to Britain.
La clef de voûte Der Schlussstein
The stone at the top of the arch, or in the roof, that holds all the other stones in place and stops the roof, or part of a bridge, falling down.
Le roi Arthur König Artus
British King from the late 5th century and early 6th century that defended Britain from the invading Saxons. His bones, and those of his wife, Queen Guinevere, are said to have been discovered in Glastonbury Abbey.
La chapelle de la Vierge Die Marienkapelle
Chapel dedicated to Mary, mother of Jesus, particularly within a large church or in a cathedral.
Le saute-mouton Das Bockspringen
Game whereby one player jumps over a second player who is bent from the waist.
Une légende Die Legende
A traditional story which is seen by many as being historical, but has never been authenticated.
Les lignes telluriques Heilige Linien
Lines of energy that run through numerous ancient monuments and/or prehistoric sites that appear to be aligned.
La liturgie Die Liturgie
A particular form of public service laid down by a church or religious group.
La Grande Charte Die Magna Charta
A civil rights document that was signed in 1215 by King John (1166-1216) giving greater protection of Church rights, among other measures.
Magna Tabula Magna Tabula (Glastoniensis)
A book made from several wooden plaques which listed the indulgences that were at Glastonbury Abbey and the beginnings of the abbey.
Crèche Die Krippe
A trough which contains animal feed; traditionally it is said that Jesus was born in one.
Un martyre Das Martyrium
The death of someone due to their religious faith.
Une massacre Das Massaker
The violent killing of a group of people.
La sage-femme Die Hebamme
Traditionally a woman that assists during the birth.
Miséricordes Die Miserikordie
Seats in the choir that fold-down and are used to rest or to perch.
Relating to monks and/or to a monastery.
Une monogramme Das Monogramm
A motif/symbol made of two or more letters.
Le mortier Der Mörser, Die Reibschale
Used in conjunction with the pestle, this is the bowl in which the herbs and spices are ground in.
Un pattern, un motif Das Muster Das Motiv
A repeated design or image which forms a pattern.
La nativité Christi Geburt, Die Weihnachtsgeschichte
The story and Christian festival of Jesus’ birth.
La nef Das Hauptschiff
Main part of the church where the majority of services take place and where the congregation is placed.
Les Normands Die Normannen
Name of the people from the north of France who ruled Britain from 1066 until 1154.
Légat du Pape Päpstlicher Legat
The Pope’s personal representative to foreign nations within Catholic countries.
Le patronage Die Patronage
Support given by a patron
Le pilon Der Stößel
Used in conjunction with a mortar, this is a heavy, blunt instrument used to grind things, typically herbs and spices.
Piers of the crossing
Piliers de la Taversée Das Strebewerk
Four arches that support the tower of the church.
La piété Die Frömmigkeit
Devotion to God; being pious.
Le pèlerinage Die Pilgerfahrt
A typically long journey to a sacred place, usually for religious devotion.
Permis de pélerin Der Pilgerbrief
A licence granted by a priest or bishop to a pilgrim to allow them to travel on pilgrimage.
La piscine (lavabo) Das Lavabo
Stone basin, usually built into the wall, which is used to wash holy vessels during Mass or Communion services.
Plantagenet Das Haus (der) Plantagenet, Die Plantagenets
British royal house whose family were monarchs from 1154 until 1485. This period included the Wars of the Roses and the Battle of Bosworth, in which Richard III, the last Plantagenet King, died. Plantagenet kings include Richard the Lionheart.
La enceinte/ la circonscription Der Klosterbezirk
The area within the boundaries of a monastery including all religious and lay buildings in which monastic daily life took place.
Le purgatoire Der Beichtstuhl
Place where sinners go upon death to absolve their sins before moving onto heaven.
Quaker Die Quäker
Christian movement founded in around 1650 which promotes peace.
Le radiocarbon Die Radiokarbonmethode
A method of dating the age of material that was once living (eg. wood).
Used to lower or raise the cooking pots over the fire to adjust the temperature.
Le réfectoire, la cantine Das Refektorium
The dining hall.
La Réforme Die Reformation
Movement in the 16th century that aimed to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the establishment of the Protestant Church under Henry VIII.
Regularis Concordia Regula Benedicti, Die Benediktsregel
The most important document of English Benedictine Reform compiled by Æthelwold, Bishop of Winchester in around 973 AD. The document laid down rules for monks and nuns to follow and it prevented abuses by the church.
Un reliquaire Das Requiliar
A container or box containing holy relics, usually of a saint.
Retrochoir or retroquire
Le chœur Der Staffelchor
The space between the high altar and the end chapel in a cathedral or in a large church.
La révérence Die Ehrfurcht
To have deep respect for, or to treat with great respect.
Richard the Lionheart
Richard Cœur de Lion Richard Löwenherz
Richard I (known as Richard the Lionheart) was an English Plantagenet King from 1189-1199.
L’Abbé Richard Whiting Der Abt Richard Whiting
Last abbot of Glastonbury Abbey from 1525 until 1539.
Roma Seconda Roma Seconda
From the Latin, meaning Second Rome. This was used to describe Glastonbury, due to its great influence and power.
Architecture Romane Romanisch (die Romanik)
Style of architecture found across Europe from around 900-1200 AD.
Le jubé Der Lettner
Elaborate, wooden screen used to divide areas of a church.
Rule of St. Benedict
Règle de Saint Benoît Die Regeln des heiligen Benedikt
Written by St. Benedict in the 6th century, this is a guide for all Christians who are committed to the monastic movement and is still used today. It was used by most monasteries in Europe in the Middle Ages. It includes directions for daily life in a monastery.
La chandelle Das Talglicht
Candle made from the pith of a rush dipped in grease.
Un aisle, un sanctuaire Das Sanktuarium (der Zufluchtsort)
Area or building of safety or refuge from pursuit, persecution or danger. Also, the holiest part of the church where the high altar stands.
Les Saxons Die Sachsen
A confederation of German tribes that settled in Britain in the early Middle Ages and created the Anglo-Saxons.
Une écritoire Das Skriptorium
Area or room dedicated to writing, particularly found in monasteries where monks would copy manuscripts.
Une arrière-cuisine Die Spülküche
The washing up area within a kitchen. In a large house this is usually a separate room.
Laïque Sekular, Laisistisch
Non- spiritual. For example a building, state or country that is not associated with religious belief.
Le trèfle Das Kleeblatt
The national symbol of Ireland – a small plant with three leaves on each stem.
Sociology of religion
Sociologie de la religion Religionssoziolgie
The study or beliefs and practices associated with organised religion using sociology (the study of social problems and the development and organisation of human society).
Saint Dunstan Dunstan von Canterbury
Abbot of Glastonbury Abbey (943-962), Bishop of Worcester, Bishop of London, and Archbishop of Canterbury who was canonised as a saint. He established Benedictine monasticism at Glastonbury.
St Michael’s Tower
La tour de Saint Michel Turm des heiligen Michael
Church on top of Glastonbury Tor which was constructed in the 11th or 12th century. It was destroyed by an earthquake in 1275 and a second church was built on the same site in the 14th century. Due to the dissolution, the church, was demolished except for the tower which remains today.
Un bâton Der Stab
A long stick used to aid walking
Somptueux Kostbar, prächtig, opulent
Rich or expensive.
Thomas Cromwell Thomas Cromwell
Chief Minister to Henry VIII from 1532 until 1540.
Village in Cornwall whose castle is associated with King Arthur.
Un impôt, une dîme Der Zehnt
Traditionally the tenth part of produce, agriculture or income given to the church as a form of gift or tax.
To dedicate an area or a building to religious purposes.
Se repentir de Bereuhen
To confess and/or to express regret at any wrongdoing or sin.
Regard with great respect, revere.
Une cabine de péage Mautstelle
A building or kiosk in which pedestrians and vehicles must pay to use a road or bridge.
Le transept Des Querschiff
This is a section which lies across the main body of the building and separates the nave from the choir.
Un trèfle Das Kleeblatt Der Klee
A plant which has three leaves on each stem.
Triforium Das Triforium
A galleried walkway on the second floor above the nave.
Triquetra Die Triqueta
Originally meaning ‘triangle’ and therefore referring to all three sided shapes. Christians use this symbol to represent the Trinity (the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit).
Une chambre sous le sol, surtout dans une église Der Gewölbekeller
A room, often vaulted, partly or fully underground, usually used for storage.
Une voûte Das Grabgewölbe, Die Gruft
A roof structure in a series of arches resting on pillars.
Wars of Roses
Les Guerres des Roses Der Rosenkrieg
An English civil war, fought between the Houses of Lancaster and York between 1455 and 1487. Lancaster won and created the Tudor dynasty.
Wattle and daub
Le clayonnage enduit de torchis Die Flechtwerkwand (mit Lehm verputzt)
Building material of woven wooden strips (wattle) covered with a sticky material of clay, wet soil, sand, animal dung or straw (daub).
Wearyall Hill Wearyall Hill
The hill in Glastonbury upon which Joseph of Arimathea is said to have placed his staff into the ground where it took root and became the Holy Thorn.